St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me
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Campbell, Bonnie ed. Rformes institutionnelles St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me espaces politiques ou les piges de la gouvernance pour les pauvres, Paris: LHarmattan,p. Karwera, Viateur; Couture, Christine; Villeneuve, Claude, Une intervention ducative dans une communaut appauvrie: pistes explorer pour une gestion durable des ressources, VertigO: la revue lectronique en sciences de lenvironnement, n.
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Umuhoza Mbateye, F. Uwimana, A. Verdoodt, St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me. Barampama, Angelo, La valorisation des cultures vivrires: une voie pour le dveloppement et lautosuffisance alimentaire: lexemple de la transformation artisanale du manioc amer, in StubleTercier, Nicole; Sottas, Beat eds.
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Govindasamy, R. Haba, S. Jose, A. Mateete, B. Mathai, J. Mbonigaba, J. Migeotte, Franois, Une colline rwandaise travers ses pratiques dlevage, Tervuren, Belgique: Muse royal de lAfrique centrale,99 p. Migeotte, Franois, March de location du btail au Rwanda: une approche par lanalyse des contrats, Revue dconomie du dveloppement, pp. Nabahungu, L. Ngwabije, Rnovat, Le paysan rwandais et la problmatique du dveloppement agricole et rural: hirarchisation des contraintes et esquisse des voies de solutions, Bulletin des sances, Acadmie royale des sciences doutre-mer, pp.
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Sekomo, C. Global trade has also increased the danger of exposure to marine toxins. The sale of King Pharoah - Delroy Wilson / Wailers* - King Pharoah / Justice foodstuffs has resulted in the occurrence of tropical food poisoning such as ciguatera and tetrodotoxism outside endemic areas.
Severe envenomations have also been observed among owners of exotic venomous marine pets. The second factor is interest in global warming. Rising water temperatures and colonization of more and more territories by tropical species are tangible consequences of global warming. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae toxic blooms of dinoflagellates, but also toxic problems induced by macroalgae speciesDust My Broom - Peter Green - Baby When The Sun Goes Down, ascidians, fish, and shellfish.
Reference 1. Schmitt C, de Haro L. Clinical marine toxicology: a European perspective for clinical toxicologists in poison centers.
Toxins Basel ; — Occupational exposure to 1-BP has been linked to adverse peripheral sensory, motor, and central nervous system effects. Here we report an outbreak of 1-BP-associated polyneuropathy in Taiwan. Case series: We report a cohort of six cases of 1-bromopropane neurotoxicity occurring in a golf club cleansing factory.
There were 1 male and 5 female patients ranging in age from 18 to 35 years with a mean of 28 years. They had been employed for 2. All patients had lower extremity pain, soreness or paresthesiae.
On examination, some had sensory impairment 6gait disturbance St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me spastic paraparesis 3hyperreflexia 3ankle clonus 1St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me shortening of menstrual period 1.
Three patients are still under rehabilitation and have been unable to return to work 4 months later due to dominant neurological symptoms. Conclusion: Using 1-BP St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents causes a new form of occupational hazard.
The pathogenesis of 1-BP has not yet been elucidated. For safety concerns, it is crucial to monitor the air level of 1-BP in the work place and urinary level of AcPrCys in workers. St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me 1. Clinical features, testing, and management of patients with suspected prosthetic hip-associated cobalt Danses Gothiques - Erik Satie - Jean-Pierre Armengaud With Dominique Merlet - LOeuvre Pour Piano - a systematic review of cases.
J Med Toxicol ; — Brent J, Devlin JJ. Dilemmas about the toxicological consequences of metal-on-metal hip prostheses—What we do and do not know, and what we should do? Clin Toxicol Phila ; — In recent years, safety concerns regarding metal on metal MOM hip prostheses have been raised. However toxicological evaluation and clinical management concerning hip surgical revision and chelation therapy are still debated. Patients were assessed for sex, age, type of prosthesis, cobalt and chromium whole blood levels, clinical manifestations and management.
Results: Twenty-one patients mean age 62 years; 14 female were studied. The manufacturer was known in 16 cases: De-Puy was the most represented 11 followed by Zimmer 2Wright 1Lima 1and Stryker 1. Time to onset of systemic manifestations ranged from 2 to 6 years from MOM implantation; in three patients abrasive local metallosis was evidenced.
In one patient MOM system was implanted after ceramic hip prosthesis fracture. Cobalt and chromium blood levels St.
Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me from 50 to All four patients underwent hip ceramic revision and metal levels normalized within 4—12 months after surgery.
In one patient intravenous high dose chelation N-acetylcysteine was successfully administered for persisting high cobalt-chromium blood levels after surgical revision. Conclusion: Arthroprosthetic cobaltism may result in neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, and hypothyroidism with late onset from prosthesis implantation. The first version was released in March Early detection is needed, for example, if exposure to a new product results in unexpected effects, if exposure to an existing product causes more toxicity than reported before, or if the number of poisonings with a certain product suddenly increases.
The importance of using EWS is that these systems pick up signals in an early phase that otherwise might be missed by the staff of a poisons center.
Based upon the number of requests in the previous 30 days and 3 years, two reference values are set. EWS compares the number of newly registered information requests at the end of every day to Snipaz (Instrumental) - Abztrakt* & Eule* - Unscheinba Aber Da reference values.
All signals above the thresholds are listed and automatically sent by e-mail to the staff for further evaluation of the frequency, circumstances, and reported symptoms of these cases and exposures. Results: EWS generates on a daily basis 0—8 new signals which need to be evaluated. Many signals are caused by seasonal related exposures e. In June the EWS proved to be a very valuable tool.
Conclusion: The first experiences with EWS are promising for early detection of emerging poisonings threatening public health. Future evaluations will be carried out in order to re-evaluate Clinical Toxicology vol. Department of Clinical Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich, Germany Objective: To present a descriptive retrospective analysis of St. Savoirs Rd.
- Devlin Law - Count On Me acutely intoxicated with newer psychotropic drugs treated in our toxicological department between and Methods: Patients were included if they were symptomatic when admitted after an overdose with newer psychopharmaceuticals and ingestion was analytically confirmed. Less than six cases per substance lead to exclusion.
The database search included the following groups of substances: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIsserotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors SNRIsnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitors NRIsmonoamine oxidase inhibitors, tetracyclic antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics and anticonvulsants used as mood stabilizers. The remaining drugs were: citalopram, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, clozapine, olanzapine, and quetiapine.
Specific parameters for estimating the clinical severity of poisoning were: hypotension, central anticholinergic syndrome CAScerebral seizures, and the duration of the in-hospital stay see Table 1. Cardiac arrhythmias were not recognized. Worth mentioning was the prolongation of the QTc-interval that was most obvious in the citalopram group. Intubation was required in 21 Specific treatment with sodium bicarbonate was performed in 7 9.
Physostigmine was administered due to CAS in 7 9. Intravenous lipid therapy was applied once. All patients survived. Conclusion: Cerebral seizures, CAS, and hypotension were clinically the most relevant adverse events. Methods: A multicenter retrospective analysis of cases of acute overdose of pregabalin. St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me criteria were monointoxication, defined dose, and documented follow-up. Severity of symptoms was assessed according to the Poisoning Severity Score.
Results: In total, cases could be included. Patients involved were 21 children 0. Doses ranged between 15— mg 5. Mild effects were observed from a dose of 75 mg 2. Doses from mg and mg caused mild or moderate symptoms in St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me and adults, respectively. There were cases with a dose up to mg without symptoms.
Two elderly people developed moderate symptoms at a dose of 75 mg. Infrequently, seizures, Table 1. Parameters for estimating the clinical severity of poisoning. Particularly, elderly people seem to be more susceptible. Severe symptoms were not observed. There is no clear correlation between dose and severity of symptoms. Reference Clinical Toxicology Downloaded from informahealthcare.
A month retrospective review of pregabalin ingestions in adults. Clin Toxicol Phila ; Their toxicity is considered low, but their actual impact remains unclear. Our objectives were to evaluate the consequences of SSRI exposures among poisoned patients admitted to the emergency department ED. Data are expressed as median [25—75 percentiles] or percentage. A serotonin syndrome was diagnosed in only one patient, but was actually present in four patients who had ingested SSRI, after proofreading their medical records.
One venlafaxine-poisoned patient presented seizures and one citalopram-poisoned patient QT prolongation without clinical consequences. No cardiac failure or membrane-stabilizing effects were observed. Diagnosis of serotonin syndrome by the emergency physicians is still insufficient, justifying improved education and training.
Sternbach H. The serotonin syndrome. Am J Psychiatry ; — The Hunter Serotonin Toxicity Criteria: simple and accurate diagnostic decision rules for serotonin toxicity.
QJM ; — In these studies, antidepressants were the most prevalent pharmaceuticals causing seizures and bupropion was the most common single St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me involved. We analyzed the pharmaceuticals associated with occurrence of seizures after single-agent overdose and calculated the seizure potential of the most frequently involved medications.
Methods: A retrospective review of acute single-agent exposures to pharmaceuticals reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre between January and December was conducted. Cases which resulted in at least one seizure were identified. Seizure potential of a drug was calculated by dividing the number of cases with seizures by the number of all cases recorded for that drug.
Results: 15, single-agent exposures to pharmaceuticals were reported. Seizures occurred in cases. Seizures in these groups were recorded in 16, 95,and 9 cases, respectively. The most prevalent drugs were mefenamic acid 51 of the casescitalopram 34trimipramine 27venlafaxine 23tramadol 15diphenhydramine 14amitriptyline 12carbamazepine 11maprotiline 10and quetiapine Overall, antidepressants caused of the cases.
Drugs with a high seizure potential were bupropion Conclusion: Antidepressants play an important role in overdoseinduced seizures. The most prevalent pharmaceuticals causing seizures do not necessarily have the highest seizure potential. In acute exposures the mean ASA was In acute and acute on chronic exposures combined, the mean St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me level was Conclusion: ASA fatalities are usually the result of an intentional suicide act, and not limited to patients with very high ASA levels.
Acute and acute on chronic fatal exposures have higher ASA levels than chronic exposures. Admission protocols and discharge reports were collected during the outbreak in the Czech Republic in The exploratory factor analysis on Spearman and Pearson correlations between VS and variables studied was used.
Results: 41 males and 9 females, median age 48 23—73 were examined. Conclusion: The number of VS was significantly underestimated in discharge reports. The damage occurred both in retinal nerve fibers and n.
Neither folate substitution nor specific antidote fomepizole brought better outcome. Timely administration of ethanol in patients with suspicion of poisoning may prevent development of VS. Clinical Toxicology Downloaded from informahealthcare. The cohort consisted of admissions between 1 January and 1 October Kaplan— Meier curves were used to compare the unadjusted mortality of the total intoxicated population and for specific intoxication subgroups based on the APACHE IV reasons for admission: a alcohol, b analgesics aspirin, acetaminophenc antidepressants e.
The diagnosis was based on clinical suspicion. The case-mix adjusted mortality was assessed by the odds ratio OR adjusted for age, gender, severity of illness, intubation status, recurrent intoxication, and several co-morbidities.
Results: The ICU mortality was 1. The mortality at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me admission was 2. Street drugs had the highest mortality 2 years after ICU admission The differences between these intoxications were not found in the adjusted mortality 3 months or more after ICU admission. Conclusion: For intoxicated ICU patients, the difference between the in-hospital mortality and the mortality after 2 years is substantial 1.
In the first 3 months after ICU admission there is a difference in mortality between some subgroups, however, this was not found after 3 months. Neurological scores and brain imaging might be useful predictors of DNS, but objectively a biochemical marker could be of great practical value.
Serum SB protein has already been shown to be a useful biochemical marker of brain injury. The aim was to evaluate the SB protein as a prognostic parameter for late neuropsychological sequelae in CO poisoning. Methods: In this prospective study we evaluated the clinical picture consciousness level and laboratory tests carboxyhemoglobin, troponin I, creatine kinase, lactate, pH, and SB levels in CO-poisoned patients admitted to the emergency department in — At least 3 years later the patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding headache, memory impairment, concentration problems, mood swings, and insomnia after CO poisoning.
The Mann—Whitney test and logistic regression were used. Results: 59 CO-poisoned patients were included. Only 20 returned completed questionnaires that were analyzed. No patient had any neurological deficit on discharge. Consciousness level on admission and other tested laboratory results did not correlate with all the evaluated DNS. Conclusion: Serum SB protein on admission is increased in patients developing concentration problems, memory impairment, headache, mood swings, and insomnia after acute CO poisoning.
SM was first used in warfare on 12 July at Ypres and was estimated to produce a staggeringcasualties on British forces alone before WWI ended in November If left untreated, SM injuries are very slow to heal taking, in some cases, many months and requiring a high level of nursing care. Discussion: Sulfur mustard produces injuries to the skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and the eyes that have been likened to thermal burns or corrosive chemical damage, but there are some important differences in the pathology that have relevance to treatment strategies.
Injuries are slower to develop than thermal burns, making maintenance of fluid balance less urgent. Unlike thermal burns where the inflammatory response is to the physical destruction of the tissues, SM produces an inflammation which precedes the tissue degradation, producing erythema, edema, and blistering of the skin.
In the lower airways and the alveoli, damage to the epithelium and endothelium produces Clinical Toxicology vol. Later, pseudomembranes can be formed in the airways that can slough off St. Savoirs Rd.
- Devlin Law - Count On Me obstruct lower airways. The eyes respond in a similar way to the skin with a conjunctivitis possibly leading to blepharospasm and temporary blindness. Ulceration may result in bulbar perforation and possible permanent loss of sight.
The mechanism by which SM initiates tissue damage is not known. It is a bifunctional alkylating agent that produces cross linked DNA lesions that are difficult for the cell to repair and alkylates many proteins any one of which could lead to the massive inflammatory response observed. Lack of a defined mechanism of action has prevented the development of specific therapies so the treatment of SM injury is symptomatic and supportive.
Skin injury is treated by excision of necrotic tissue on all but superficial wounds combined with appropriate post-surgical care. Petroleum jelly on the margins of the eyelids will help prevent adhesions and in extreme cases homatropine eye drops may be beneficial, but the use of local anesthetics should be avoided.
Injury to the respiratory tract is more difficult to treat requiring artificial ventilation in an intensive care environment in more severe cases. The removal of pseudo membranes by bronchoscopy and moist inhalation can be highly beneficial. Long term effects of SM can be debilitating. The skin may show hyper- or hypo-pigmentation and some scarring with recurrent blister formation on burn sites.
Respiratory tract injury can produce a paroxysmal cough leading to sleep deprivation causing psychological problems. Commonly observed features of respiratory tract damage are dysphonia, chronic sinusitis, lower position larynx, limitation of vocal cords, mucosal inflammation of larynx, tracheobronchial stenosis, chronic obstructive respiratory disease, bronchiectasis, and fibrosis.
Some of these symptoms may be relieved by N-acetylcysteine treatment, but the mechanism for this therapeutic effect remains to be established. Most patients with eye damage recover full sight but some St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me cases may experience recurrent ulceration. A delayed corneal keratosis and persistent ulceration has been reported some years after the initial exposure. The most serious long Peer Gynt Suite - Morning - Various - The Best Of The Classical Bits - 18 Favourite Tracks From The effect of SM is cancer.
As a bifunctional alkylating agent SM is a genotoxic carcinogen. There is much animal data to support this classification St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me epidemiological studies in workers from gas factories in WWII confirm the conclusion. Conclusion: Treatment of SM injury is supportive and symptomatic and severe cases require intensive care support and prolonged nursing care to achieve recovery.
Recurrence of symptoms for many years after exposure are possible, the most serious of which include ulceration and keratosis of the eyes, obstructive pulmonary disease, lung fibrosis, and cancer. Drug therapies show promise but are not widely accepted or used. Future research using new methods e. Vedder EB. The Vesicants. Medical Aspects of Chemical Warfare. Verification of exposure to sulfur mustard in two casualties of the Iran-Iraq conflict.
J Anal Toxicol ; — Willems JL. Clinical management of mustard gas casualties. Ann Med Milit Belg ; 3S:1— Medical management of cutaneous sulfur mustard injuries. Toxicology Coldwater Canyon - Tangerine Dream - Encore 47— Potential anti-inflammatory treatments against cutaneous sulfur mustard injury using the mouse ear vesicant model. Hum Exp Toxicol Rezio E Sira Tema DAmore - Carlo Franci - Il Gladiatore Invincible — Art depicting poisoning comes in the form of paintings, detective novels, opera, and classic re-telling of history.
Life imitates art when poisons are used in assassinations from espionage and political drama all the way down to the Lucrezia Borgias of domesticity. Poisoned artists also add to the melodrama of toxicology in the social consciousness. Objective: To illustrate the history of toxicology through the various media in art and literature.
Methods: A comprehensive search of Google Scholar, LitMed, Embase, and art English-language databases was conducted to identify works of literature and art depicting poisoning. The bibliographies of historical texts St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me further reviewed for other relevant works Results: Toxicology is predominantly represented in fictional literature, paintings, the opera, and film.
The majority of ancient poisons were derived from natural toxins, particularly herbs, flowering plants and seeds. Venomous animals, especially snakes, were both feared and venerated in art and literature from eastern and western cultures. These are typically depicted in Indian and Chinese art forms, such as classical dance and sculpture. The toxicology of the last millennium has progressed to the use of heavy metals, anti-cholinergics and purified toxins.
Conclusion: Throughout history, humans have recorded the use of poisons in art and literature. The practice of clinical toxicology has much to learn from these history lessons.
It is typically administered by intravenous infusion, at or near its maximum tolerated dose, over several days. Life-threatening or lethal 5-FU toxicity occurs due to errors in programming infusion pumps, infusion reservoir errors and dosage miscalculations. In addition, some patients display unusual, severe, early-onset toxicities to 5-FU such as encephalopathy or cardiotoxicity, including cardiac arrest.
China in Britain: The representation of twentieth century Chinese art and culture in contemporary British museums. Museological Review 9 pp. Dudley, Sandra H. Narrating Objects, Collecting Stories. Knell, Simon J. Exhibiting China in London. In: Knell, Simon J. Routledge, pp. A Museum Studies Approach to Heritage. Leicester Readers in Museum Studies.
Representing the China Dream: A case study in revolutionary cultural heritage. Barnes, Amy Jane and Kraamer, Malika Textile History46 2 pp. Barnes, Amy Jane and Walklate, Jennifer Afterword: a conversation with Sue Pearce.
Bates, Lis University of Bristol. Bauer, Kaarina-Nancy Beinart, William and Hughes, Lotte Mult Prea. - Ab4 - Toxic and the Visual Representation of Nature, History Compass6 5 pp.
Environment and Empire. Systemic Practice and Action Research31 1 pp. Benatti, Francesca Irish patriots and St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me adventurers: the Irish Penny Journal, Canadian Journal of Irish Studies35 2 pp. Postgraduate education. Superhero comics and the digital communications circuit: a case study of Strong Female Protagonist. Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics10 3 pp. Joining the press-gang: Thomas Moore Da Mensch Is A Sau - Worried Men Skiffle Group - Da Schendste Mann Von Wien / Poptakes the Edinburgh Review.
Reimagining Ireland Oxford: Peter Lang. John Mitchel. In: Brake, Laurel Forelash - Obo - Weint Dacker Down EP Demoor, Marysa eds.
Samuel Lover. William Carleton, The Ulsterman ; later the Irishman Charles Gavan Duffy. William Curry Jnr. Philip Dixon Hardy. The Shamrock, ? Land and landscape in the Dublin Penny Journal, Land and Landscape in Nineteenth-Century Ireland. Nineteenth-Century Ireland Series. Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp. Poetry and Song in the Age of Revolution. New York and London: Routledge, pp. Benatti, Francesca and King, David In Search of the Voice of the Edinburgh Review. Algorithmic criticism, Distant Reading and the Edinburgh Review.
A Question of Style: individual voices and corporate identity in the Edinburgh Review, A Question of Style: individual voices and corporate identity in the Edinburgh Review One Year After.
Hidden Authors and Reading Machines: Investigating 19th-century authorship with 21st-century technologies. The Thomas Moore Archive. Benatti, Francesca and Tonra, Justin Benton, Tim The Modernist Home. London: Victoria and Albert Museum.
Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser. Humanism and fascism. Comparative Criticism: An Annual Journal23 pp. Paris, France: Editions Le Moniteur. Review: Pride in modesty: modernist architecture and the vernacular tradition in Italy by Michelangelo Sabatino. Harvard Design Magazine33 pp. New books on Le Corbusier. Journal of Design History22 3 pp. The complexities and contradicitions of modernism. Positions pp. Rassegna di architettura e urbanistica pp. Le Corbusier Peintre a Cap Martin.
Paris: Editions du Patrimoine. The art of the well-tempered lecture: Reyner Banham and Le Corbusier. In: Aynsley, Jeremy and Atkinson, Harriet eds. Art Deco architecture. Italian architecture and design. Art Keep It Hot - DJ Three - Fat Beats Presents In: Bonillo, Jean-Lucien ed. Le Corbusier, Visions d'Alger. Les Rencontres de la Fondation Le Corbusier. Paris: Editions de La Villette, pp. Domus Mare Nostrum.
Toulon: Hemisud for Conseil General du Var, pp. Art Deco and Japonisme. In: Brown, Kendall H. Deco Japan: Shaping Modern Culture In: Canziani, Andrea ed. Le Case per artisti sull'Isola Comacina. Quaderni fondation montandon. Como: NodoLibri, pp. Atlantic Coast: nature as inspiration. In: Cohen, Jean-Louis ed. New York: Museum of Modern Art, pp. Le Corbusier: an Atlas of Modern Landscapes. The miracle of Le Corbusier's roof terrace. In: Gargiani, Roberto ed.
Lausanne: Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes, pp. Le Corbusier's secret photographs. In: Herschdorfer, Natalie and Umstatter, Lada eds. Le Corbusier and the Power of Photography. London: Thames and Hudson, pp. Paris: Archibooks, pp. Les peintures murales. Il concorso per il palazzo del Littorio, In: Reichlin, Bruno and Tedeschi, Letizia eds.
Milan: Electa. The Villa de Mandrot and the place of the imagination. In: Richard, Michel ed. Massilia Marseilles: Editions Imbernon, pp. In: Torres, Jorge ed. Le Corbusier Mise au Point. Memorias Culturales. Valencia: General de Ediciones de Arquitectura, pp.
Memorias culturales. Valencia: General de Ediciones de la Arquitectura, pp. La maison La Roche et les ateliers d'artistes de Le Corbusier. In: Torres Cueco, Jorge ed. Valencia: Memorias Culturales, pp. Funktionnel HO. Memorias Culturales, pp. In: Weaver, Thomas ed. AA FilesVolume Architectural Association, pp.
Dom-Ino and the Phantom Pilotis. AA Files. AA Files, 69 London: Architectural Association, pp. Building Utopia. Modernism and nature. In: Wilk, Christopher ed. Modernism: designing a new world. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, pp.
Benton, Tim and Benton, Charlotte Avant Hurricane - The Surf Sluts - Pot Sounds sources. Decline and revival. The Style and the Age. Le Corbusier le Grand. London: Phaidon. Benton, Tim and Watson, Nicola Museum practice and heritage. In: West, Susie ed. Understanding Heritage in Practice. Best, Terence An edition with preface of G. Handel, Deidamia, HWV Handel, Serse, HWV Handel, Riccardo primo, HWV Towards a spatial practice of the postcolonial city: introducing the cultural producer.
Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies17 6 pp. Betts, Eleanor Cubrar matrer : goddess of the Picenes? Accordia Research Papers12 pp. Places of transition and deposition: phenomena of water in the sacred landscape of Iron Age Central Adriatic Italy. Accordia Research Papers14 pp. Introduction: Senses of empire. In: Betts, Eleanor ed. St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me multivalency of sensory artefacts in the city of Rome.
Afterword: Towards a methodology for Roman sensory studies. Towards a multisensory experience of movement in the City of Rome. Rome, Ostia and Pompeii: Movement and Space.
The sacred landscape of Picenum BC : towards a phenomenology of cult places. In: Wilkins, John B. Inhabiting Symbols: symbol and image in the ancient Mediterranean. Accordia Specialist Studies on the Mediterranean 5. Blackburn, Kevin and Hack, Karl Did Singapore have to fall?
Churchill and the impregnable fortress. Understanding and developing communities of practice through diagramming. In: Oreszczyn, Sue and Lane, Andy eds. Mapping environmental sustainability: reflecting on systemic practices for participatory research. London: Policy Press, pp. Boehmer, Elleke and Tickell, Alex The s: An Increasingly Postcolonial Decade.
Journal of Commonwealth Literature50 3 pp. Bolick, Laura Culture, humanism and intellect: Cardinal Bessarion as patron of the arts. The Year's Work in English Studies65 1 pp. African, Caribbean, and Canadian literature. The Year's Work in English Studies63 1 pp. The Year's Work in English Studies64 1 pp. Boulez, Pierre and Samuels, Robert [trans.
The musician writes: for the eyes of the deaf? In: Ashby, Arved ed. Eastman Studies in Music. Bretas, Marcos Luiz You can't! The daily exercise of police authority in Rio de Janeiro : Bridges, Emma Brough, Gideon and Marsden, Richard Anglo-Welsh wars In: Martel, Gordon ed. The Encyclopaedia of War. Blackwell St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me Ltd. Gwynedd, Owain Llywelyn the Great c. Rhys ap Gruffudd Brown, Jo The Athenian harem: Orientalism and the historiography of Athenian women in the nineteenth century.
New Voices in Classical Reception Studies6 pp. Knowing that we were destined to come to the Naval Academy as the summer of approached, we prepared St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me for a transition from our various modes of living to whatever lay before us 31 A lame burned, and the moths drew ever closer to its enchanting light.
That flame St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me a career, a vision of the future embodied in grey walls and a golden spire, grey ships and golden sunsets. And we were the moths, gathering and hovering about the flame, striving to reach it yet not knowing what St.
Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me held for us, knowing only the magnetic enchantment of its irresistible glow. Yes, all roads led to Annapolis, and in the early summer of we, travel-weary and apprehensive, began to congregate outside the walls of the promised land, forming our battle plans for the conquest of the future.
We talked things over and tried to relax. After a restless night of impatience we arose to survey the walls we were about to storm ; we arose to old expectations and new fulfillments.
As we started down Maryland Avenue toward the Main Gate, our hearts grew faint and our steps uncertain. During that last long mile a million thoughts flashed through our minds, thoughts of the future, for we were leaving the past behind. Our hearts must have missed a beat as we passed through those portals of promise and found ourselves surrounded by grey walls covered with green ivy, brick walks shaded by green trees, and marble monuments cloaked with tradition.
We were sent to the Administration Building first to receive necessary instruc- tions, and we left there, slightly stunned, to cross the yard to Bancroft Hall. Our eyes missed little of the beauty about us as we half straggled, half marched, toward the impressive main entrance. Again our eyes were filled with wonder at the sight of marble floors and massive columns as we entered the rotunda ; the friendly little man who greeted us Heaven Only Knows - The Shangri-Las - 16 Greatest Hits dwarfed by its hugeness.
Our pulses started to quicken and we were filled with misgivings about our health as he directed us to the sick bay. Could something be wrong, something we had not thought about? We soon saw that the doctors would not forget anything, even if we had. With sweat dripping from our armpits and our blood pressure steadily rising, we went from room to room, from probing to probing.
None of us was new to physical examinations, but this one meant more to us than anything else at the time — our whole future depended on it. And when we left Bancroft Hall, some of us walked with leaden hearts, knowing that dreams are unsubstantial things ; the rest of us felt a sense of relief, knowing that on the morrow would begin the life that we had sought.
Formal room inspection. After we exchanged our civilian garb for white work uniforms we went to work with a stencil brush and a bottle of ink, but the rude clang of a bell soon interrupted us and we followed the mob to formation on the rear terrace. Finally we waded through the stencilling and pack- ing and were ready for room inspection. Then we began our task of learning the ways of men and the sea.
Our task brought to us a new language, the lan- guage of the sea and of Naval Academy life. We found the "Plebe's Bible," Reef Points, a great help in getting started on the right foot. Tucker Miociatc Editor J. Aditrthmg Manager R. Glenn CinieUthn Manager -R. Baughan, Jr. Richardson The Navy H. Howard, Jr.
McGrath Auislanl. Ccnsale G. Hagerman and S. Drinking fountain. A rumor of doubtful origin. SKAG— A cigarette. A slide rule. SLUM— Mess cook's holiday. Sailing on the Severn. Not only mad dogs and Englishmen, but midshipmen as well go out in the noonday sun, and it beat us mercilessly about the head and shoulders.
A cool shade and a tall drink would have been a blessing those hot days, but we had no time for wishful thinking ; we had work to do We started right in to Willie The Pimp - The Jack And Jim Show - The 7th Street Entry Nightshift our job of being naval officers. The Seamanship Department had the job of making sailors of us and we looked forward to the drills in the cutters and knockabouts.
On the rifle range the instructors tried to make rifle experts of us as we paused time and time again in our firing to wipe the sweat from our eyes.
The Executive Department tried to teach us that snap and precision which are essential to military efficiency. It takes a lot to make an officer and a gentleman-we found! Pass in review! Realizing that stamina and a sound body are essential for an exacting routine of work and watches, we accepted without undue complaint the course of physical training. Some of us found defects in our posture, and some of us had to learn to swim. Many of us had trouble with jumping or rope climbing, and the run- ning test was no lazy man's task.
Sports furnished us much pleasure and benefit during Plebe summer. Some of us who went out for football would help beat Army some day. Grueling tests and brisk work-outs in i St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me gym showed up our weaknesses and left us physica1 ly better Slade Cutter cot our Plebe football team off to an early start.
But the spasm of jubilance soon subsided, and we were bus preparing for youngster cruise we had new work be- fore ns, new pons 10 visit, new adventures awaiting us. Hardly knowing what to expect, we packed oui belongings and went aboard the battleships to learn more of the navy life. We lived here. Hid the squilgee. But a ship will not run on cleanliness alone ; so we went to the throbbing engine rooms and to the sweltering fircrooms to learn of steam and machinery.
It was not enough that we be engineers and deck hands; we had to learn something of every part of the ship's organization. Those signal watches taught us a lot about communications, and we gained a clearer conception of how a man-of-war is operated as a self- sustaining fighting unit when we stood watches on the bridge.
All of litis was building a background that would provide for the eventualities of the future. We did this with muscle. The most vital part of our training was in gunnery. After all, what good is a warship without guns, and what good are guns if they cannot be fired accurately and rapidly?
Long hours were spent at the sight tele- scopes and the loading machines in preparation for the few minutes it required to fire. We showed more en- thusiasm for this phase of our training than for any other, always keeping in mind that the shots that hit are the shots that count.
When the week's St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me was over, we St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me academy-laundered whites and sparkling shoes for cap tain's inspection — after that came recreation.
The ship's band usually played for our pleasure after the evening meal, and we enjoyed the movies in the evenings if we did not have the watch. The Fourth of July was marked by smokers, contests, and merriment for all. We needed play to relieve the routine. Many of us took advantage of the sun in the afternoons, sprawling on the hard-wood deck while we replenished our supply of energy. We needed rest, rest from watches, working parties, drills, and those short nights of liberty.
The places we saw and the experiences we had in Europe are indelibly stamped in our memories. We loved France, the people, the beautiful countryside, the fine old buildings, the gay night life, and the smiles that hid a fear of the inevitable invasion from the east.
Denmark brought us many happy moments and ac- quaintances that we were reluctant to leave. We all heaved a sigh of regret as we saw the continent sink below the horizon, not knowing what another year was to bring. Frederiksberg Castle. The Trianon. Three Musketeers. Beef Eaters. The England we saw was peaceful, good humored, and hospitable. Soap-box orators held forth in Hyde Park, and the bill boards were plastered with posters of an anti-vivi- section campaign.
Yet even then one ear was to the ground to hear the rumble when it started on the continent. Although our visit to Europe had Robin Hood - Loredana Bertè - Sono Donna ex- tremely satisfying, few of us regretted returning to New York's sky-scrapers, air-conditioning, and cold beer. And the hospitality and beauti- ful Roberta Flack - Killing Me Softly With His Song of Norfolk upheld their reputation.
Little Old New York. Virginia Beach. Somewhere beyond the rim of youngster year, like an oasis in the desert, lies the fabulous land of second class summer, the halfway mark of every midshipman's career. Strange tales are told of its inhabitants, the second class, and their privileges and responsibilities. Small wonder then that the third classman trudges on through the perils of youngster year, heartened by the thought of what is to come; yet there is something child-like about his simple faith in himself, his slipstick, and his god whom he calls Tecumseh.
Armed with only these he sets out with the mechanical ingenuity of the steam department to the right of him, the systematic scheming Que Tal America - Two Man Sound - Disco Samba the skinny department to the St.
Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me of him, the accu- mulated wizardry of the math department before him, and the bodies of his fallen comrades all around him. We watch him disappear into the distance toward second class summer, that youngster who was ; then we turn away with a mental "bon voyage. We began to think that the old adage about all work and no play had been given a new twist.
Ol course there are always watches to stand in the Navy, but the were incidental as long as our necks were not ex- posed to the axe. To work off the effects of those week-ends ol' frolic we were sent to the gym where we groaned and strained in order to avoid the stigma ol the sub and weak squads during the academic year. They work out on Wednesday afternoons when we have liberty! Long hours we spent a1 the rifle range, where we combined aerial gunnerj with trap and skeet shooting. From that briel moment of sport we went to hours on the machine gun Bring line, learning to lead the target and to lire in bursts of three.
The highlight of our work was that short period of flight Mining a turn at the controls, a little aerial navigation, a flight to Anacosii. Squads right and left! Out in front. Tactical exercises. When we reported for", instruction in seamanship, we found our tasks more like play than anything else in the Navy. Sometimes we played with toy boats in Luce Hall, and at other times we went to sea in the Y.
We did not even mind the chief's little red book during the motor launch drills. Those impromptu races in the knock- abouts and whaleboats and the arrival of our new yawls in the middle of the summer were even more fun. Our introduction to navigation was interesting— after we recovered from our dismay at being handed St.
Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me colossal armful of books. The work on the charts we endured because there were always interesting hours spent surveying or learning to use the sextant and the bubble octant— all part of that ounce of prevention to make sure that we never hear that loud crunching sound forward.
Bumper drili Start the P-work Gentleman artisan. I don't get it! Stop the turn! From the newly-provided inner-spring mattresses we dragged our drowsy bodies each morning. After breakfast we trudged with reluctant feet to the lairs of the steam and juice depart- ments to investigate the mysteries devised to plague midship- men on sultry days.
The practical considerations of machinery, steam and in- ternal combustion engines, the rudiments of the art of welding and pipe bending, all of these we studied.
A morning spent in testing our flying ability in the Link Trainer, and another spent in a submarine were experiences none of us regrets. After the few minutes of listening to a radio buzzer we knew that there was another hour in which there would be no rest for the wicked in general and the midshipmen in particular, sometimes the lectures afforded a cat nap or two, if the prof did not insist that we at least pretend to listen.
Out of the maze of lecture, theory, and experiment one fact became clear ; iron filings will do strange things when properly induced by a power called magnetism, or something. At last our dreams became real when Second Class Day arrived early in August. It was the "summing up" of the pleasures and privileges, as well as the responsibilities, of St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me class summer.
Each of us became "King for a Day" as all the recreational facilities which the Academy has to offer were thrown open to us and our drags. Somehow, during the previous two years, we had become imbued with the spirit St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me the St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Meand we turned eagerly for recreation to swimming and sailing In the evening we went to Smoke Park. Second Class Day moved toward its unforgettable climax at dinner time. Like any old park, Smoke Park has its benches and its bushes, its trees and its grass.
But that night, unlike any old park, it had colored lights, a fountain, and a hidden orchestra. The summer air was soft and warm and the stars looked down like a thousand eager eyes. A CHAT. Thackery received. Stately and historic Memorial Hall was the scene of the hop, a hop that moved at a lively and exciting pace, but somehow preserved its picturesque dignity and calm. And as the evening drew to a close, each one of us felt that the hop had been a fitting finale to a day he will long remember.
Time out. Second class cruise was a pleasant one. There was plenty of room and good chow. The watches gave us some first hand experience in handling a ship, and various tours shed some light on the functions of other naval activities. The cruise was not long enough to be tiresome, but it carried us to beautiful ports and won- derful liberty. Steady as you go! Frankie passed the word. After learning some of the theory of navigation, seamanship, gunnery, and engineering during second class year, we went to sea in order to learn how this knowledge is applied in practice.
First class cruise gave us training which was new to us. We learned how to assume responsibility, and we learned how to get things done. We enjoyed more leisure than on previous cruises, but mid- watches and navigation took much of our sleep— a four star fix gave us a thrill of pride, though.
Our jobs were such that we gained an insight into the organization of a battleship ; we learned to maneuver in formation, to read and decode signals, to operate the engineering plant, and to direct the gunfire. We hope we learned, at least in part, how to make a fighting fleet. Permission to J E W I ill.
SHIP, sin In Old Panama, Back in the spring we were greatly disappointed when we learned that our trip across the equator to Rio would not materialize, but international affairs failed to consider the desires of midshipmen. We were not de- prived of pleasure, however, when we visited Panama. Tropical rain, green jungles, and old ruins colored with legend lent a romantic atmosphere to our short stay there. When we awoke one morning to look up at the Venezuelan mountains, we stood in awe of their majestic beauty.
A thrilling trip over those mountains revealed to us hospitable Caracas nestled The New Symphony Orchestra Of London, Raymond Agoult - Overture! Overture in her loveliness. All of us brought back fond memories from Latin America.
After stopping for a few days in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands where we enjoyed the sunshine, the swimming, and the rum, St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me turned again northward— to ever-fascinating New York and quaint old New England.
No sight stirred us more than the spires of Manhattan rising magnificently before us as we swung to the anchor in the North River. The St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me boats discharged their cargoes of eager youths, and they rushed to join the hustling horde of humanity that will always be New York.
We were the guests of the World's Fair and the Rockettes — some of us were lucky enough to get dates with those lovely dancers. We swarmed to the theaters and to the night clubs, hungry for the excitement, the adventure, that waited in every by-way.
Our brief stop at Newport allowed us to renew old friendships and to tour the Training Station, the Torpedo Factory, and the War College. Then, for the first time in history, the cruise went to Boston where we were royally feted. After that period of play we had to go to work again — to Guantanamo and target practice and an early return to Annapolis.
Then came September leave! Guantanamo, the lam jtop. Johnny fieoo. NtPud Ho Liedel Wild Bill Hco. The long awaited time is at hand, and the fact that it has been shortened to provide more officers for the growing Navy does St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me take away the thrill. A 'Kmt JieaiLe By bus, plane, train, and automobile the regi- ment returned.
All road. To the regiment of midshipmen September, not February, is the shortest month of the year. The lout; corridors and empty rooms are doubly cruel alter the comforts we had left, but when, through a great display of will power, the cruise boxes were unpacked and lockers slowed, we were read to call Bancroft Hall our home for another year.
Where will I start? All out — last stop. For three years conjectures had been made as to who would be our stripers and many bull sessions centered around the weighty subject - "Who do you think will be five-striper in our class? And here they are! Phillips, Brown, Sanger, Cagle. Sixth Company: Reeves, Jacobs, Fonvieli.
Crenshaw, Guinn, Greenlee. Gunnels, Leahy, Riley. Tenth Company: Wyse, Wirth. Engle, Maim din, Vincent. Eleventh Company: Thomson, Seaman. MacMillan, Hayler, King. Twelfth Company: Harbrecht, Huey. Bienvenu, Walsh, Savage, Naymark. This i i. Most oi thes moments occur at regular St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Mebut there is little comfort in reveille every morning in general and Monday morning in particular or the weekly posting of the trees, or the mevitable crash of a spilled steam kit at each P-work.
In order to be ready for the responsibility of taking over ihc deck in a modern battleship, a midshipman Cinema - Yes - 90125 Ms w. Plebe year we were battalion office messengers ; next we stood those long, weary youngstei assistant mate wati Ins, looking for- ward to the day when we could liei nine null c's.
Even these privileges were overshadowed by the promise offirsl class company male and officer of the watch duties. Part-time Postman. Many other extra jobs came upon watch through the years, and in addi- tion to being assistant mates of the deck and company mates, there was always the St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me of being an usher at the movies or football game, or being called upon to show a group of girls around the yard, Towers Of Dub - The Orb - The BBC Sessions 1989-2001 St.
Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me the sea wall detail during the rest period. The Main Office Detail. Another Week-end Watch. Anyone who lakes that old adage about "early to bed and early to rise makes you healthy, wealthy, and wise" too seriously would certainly be disappointed if he took a look up and down the corridors of Bancroft Hall at iiin - some morning.
Nowhere in the world could he find mm li. Just after leave ii seemed almost impossible to get back in step with the exact routine of Bancroft Hall, where each moment is planned, and he who operates behind schedules is cer- tain to suffer. Of course, all one need do is follow ArticleU. Regulations, and he will never go astray, St.
Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me thai article lisis the time of every forma- tion, study hour, and drill that must be attended, but.
After breakfast came half an hour St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me light housekeeping, to get the room in shape, the beds made, and the dust brushed off the most conspicuous places. The final section of this opening chapter presents some quotations, illustrating how these matters have been thought of by mathematicians, advisers and other opinion formers over the past two centuries, to support the arguments for using the history of mathematics while learning and teaching mathematics at all levels.
These include conceptual comprehension, pleasure in doing mathematics, the value of new technology, the internal cohesion Red Foley - Beyond The Sunset mathematics, the significance and functionality of mathematics at work, the habit of setting and solving problems in a 1.
Nowhere in the official documents are there found statements about utilising the history of mathematics within the curriculum, although teachers and faculty individually express such an interest and hold annual national meetings to pursue knowledge of history.
More specifically, in the 9th grade students should know about the change of the concept of function; in the 10th grade they should know the historical meaning of logarithms and in grade 11 they should learn historical aspects of the calculus. None of this is compulsory, however. In school books for grades 5 to 8, there are historical notes, ranging from a few lines up to several pages, in connection with trigonometry, complex numbers, and limits of a sequence as well as with other topics.
From onward, the regulations were changed so that each state can establish its own curriculum. Nevertheless, tradition, inertia, and the fact that textbooks define, in practice, the actual curriculum assure a homogeneity among the curricula of the individual states. Inafter wide discussions and consultations, the ministry of education issued parameters for the first four years of schooling.
In similar parameters were established in an analogous way, for grades 5 to 8, and for grades 9 to 11 of secondary school. The parameters are not mandatory, but there have been in the late s a considerable number of requests, from state offices of education, for a national curriculum for Brazil as a whole. The Ministry of Education has chosen not to establish a mandatory national curriculum, but the national parameters have to some extent taken on this role. In the parameters for Κι Αν Φύγεις - Ζανέτ Καπούγια Συμμετέχει ο Δάκης - Θα Στο Πω 1 to 8, there is a strong emphasis on the history of mathematics, and on the fact that mathematics is not just a body of knowledge, but also of processes and practices that were slowly created in response to human needs and curiosity.
The parameters St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me call attention to the fact that mathematics should not be treated separately from other school subjects, nor indeed from broader concerns with the environment, health, etc. Within mathematics, too, teachers are urged to try to foster integration of arithmetic, geometry, and measurements.
Four resources are I Believe (Switch Remix) - Simian Mobile Disco - I Believe (Remixes) for doing mathematics inside the classroom: problem solving, history of mathematics, information technologies, and games. Specifically in relation to the history of mathematics the parameters say: 4 1 The political context The history of mathematics, by means of a process of didactic transposition and together with other didactic and methodological resources, can offer an important contribution to the process of mathematics teaching and learning.
By revealing St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me as She Who Weeps - Cassandra Wilson - She Who Weeps human creation, by showing necessities and preoccupations from different cultures in different historical periods, by establishing comparisons between mathematics concepts and processes of past and present, the teacher has the possibility of developing more favorable attitudes and values to the student facing mathematical knowledge.
In several situations, having history of mathematics as a resource can clarify mathematical ideas that St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me being constructed by students, especially to give answers to some questions and, in this way, contribute to the constitution of a critical look over the objects of knowledge.
Thus teachers are St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me why it will be beneficial to use history, but are given little guidance on how to do so. This led to researches into the ancient history of mathematics. As a consequence, when Chinese historians of mathematics were invited to compile new textbooks, a number of mathematical results could be re- named after their ancient Chinese equivalents or the Chinese authors who discovered them.
In China, 95 percent of schools adopt the nation-wide unified mathematics textbooks 1in which 16 items are concerned with the history of mathematics: 1. Decimals 4-grade. Chinese ancient mathematics. Equations 7-grade : the Nine chapters of arithmetic, a Chinese classical work of the first century, explained by Liu Hui. Negative number 7- grade : Nine chapters of arithmetic 5. The origin of geometry 7-grade : Egypt, Euclid, Mo Zi.
Parallel axiom 7-grade : Euclid. Mathematical symbols 7-grade : Multiplication sign Oughtred 1decimal point Clavius, 8. A story of Gauss 7-grade 9. Gou Gu Theorem 8-grade : Zhao Shuang The discovery of irrational number 8- grade : school of Pythagoras.
The history of quadratic equation 8-grade. Nine chapters of arithmetic, The area of triangle 8-grade St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me Qin Jiu ShaoHeron about 62 Construction with rules and compasses 9-grade : Greek mathematics Zu Gen Principle c.
Few Chinese teachers use the historical material as aids to mathematics teaching in the classroom, however, except for some paragraphs directly concerning education for patriotism. In normal colleges and universities, where teachers are trained, there is intended to be an optional course on the history of mathematics Dreamin - Various - The Heart & Soul Of Rock N Roll classroom hours.
However, because of the lack of mathematical historians to teach the subject, many universities are unable to offer a course of mathematics history when the students elect to do it. Most knowledge of history of mathematics that Chinese teachers have is from other mathematics courses. Recently, however, the research of history of mathematics has made rapid progress in China, and now more than one hundred historians of mathematics are working in institutions for teacher training. A lot of historical events lead teachers to formalism, abstraction and absolutism.
In China, Marxist philosophy is an important political course. In addition, Marx had an unpublished work, his Mathematical manuscripts, in which many mathematical problems were explored. In particular, Marx talked about the logical basis of Newtons calculus. In the curriculum of the Masters degree in mathematics education, there is a basic course on philosophy and history of mathematics.
Therefore many Chinese mathematicians and teachers pay more attention to the logical aspect of mathematics, and explore such topics as Russells paradox and Cantors set theory.
A number of books explain the historical context and details of three St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me crises: the discovery of irrational numbers; infinitesimal calculus; and the paradoxes of set theory; as well as the familiar three schools of logicism, formalism, and intuitionism. For this reason many university students name Kurt Gdel as a mathematical hero. In contrast to their enthusiasm for formalism, abstraction and absolutism, history of mathematics textbooks in China pay less attention to applied mathematics.
Maxwells equations, for example, are usually ignored in histories which discuss the 19th century. The mathematics curriculum in China maintains the standards of a formal, rigorous, deductive system.
Most mathematics teachers believe that training in logical thinking is the core of mathematics teaching, and that any informal approach will be harmful to pupils. Inthe Chinese Education Ministry published the programme of Mathematics Curriculum, in which only one sentence concerned the history of mathematics: Aid by history of mathematics to foster pupils patriotism.
The Programme of mathematics teaching and learning which the Education Ministry published in pointed out that By presenting of ancient and modern achievements in China, the pupils sense of national pride and patriotic thought is aroused. Even though the history of mathematics was represented as personal choices of topic in the past and still is today at the university level where courses are taught, and quite a few students write Masters theses in the subject, there was no influence of history on the teaching and learning of mathematics at large.
At the school level, no historical component at all was 6 1 The political context given, apart from names attached to theorems. Only in one text book system were anecdotes included as spices to the diet, but not made the object of teaching or learning.
Changes began inwhen Roskilde University was established with the purpose of bringing some innovation in tertiary education in Denmark. The history of mathematics was included in the mathematics programme right from the beginning. It was, and remains, an underlying idea in the Roskilde programme that mathematics is a discipline that exists, evolves, and is exercised in time and space; that is, in history and society.
Rather than requiring students to take specific history courses, they are required to include historical considerations in their studies.
It should be noted that these Deutschland - K.G.B. - Kein Grund Zur Beruhigung are strongly based on projects. In the mid s, the academic upper secondary school system grades 10 to 12 underwent a rapid expansion that almost caused a crises as far as mathematics was concerned.
Instead of continuing to address a rather limited elite of 10 percent of the youth cohort, about 30 percent were addressed, and this has now expanded to 50 percent. It was clear that such a great portion of the population could not be expected to swallow the very theoretical diet previously taught.
Duringmathematics educators conducted a series of meetings and in-service courses for teachers throughout the country where they presented some ideas of what could be done to cater for the much broader audience now enrolling in advanced secondary education. Mogens Niss suggested the historical aspect of mathematics, among other aspects, as a St.
Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me of defining the curriculum in dimensions of mathematics rather than the topics of a traditional syllabus. A lot of experimentation was begun by schools, and by individual teachers throughout the country, including ways to include the historical aspect of mathematics in its teaching and learning. When, later in the s, the Parliament decided to establish a general reform of the structure of the curriculum of the upper secondary school, the Ministry of Education began to promote a slightly modified form of the Standard Experimental Curriculum.
This is still in forcewith a few modifications in the organizational structure. The current curriculum document includes these statements: Students have to acquire knowledge of elements of the history of mathematics and of mathematics in cultural and societal contexts. The fact that the historical aspect of mathematics was made a compulsory component of the upper secondary curriculum had implications for the university studies in mathematics that at Masters level prepare upper secondary school teachers.
It simply became a requirement for the employment of a university graduate in mathematics in an upper secondary school that his or her university studies have included elements of the history of mathematics. So all Danish universities were forced to introduce such elements in their programmes which some of them did only reluctantly.
It is certainly not the case that the historical aspect of mathematics is given prominent position in mathematics education at all levels in Denmark. The reason why elements of the history of mathematics were introduced, as a non-negligible component of upper secondary mathematics education, and later of university mathematics programmes, was not that individuals or associations did a lot of clever and efficient canvassing and lobbying to influence the authorities.
Instead, a combination of historical conditions and circumstances paved the way for the changes which are described here. Two factors seem to have been essential: firstly, the task and role of the upper secondary school in general, and of mathematics in particular, became subject to drastic changes that called for reform.
Nobody believed that things could have continued unaltered. Secondly, mathematics educators who had thought about new principles for the design of mathematics curricula and gained experiences from innovative teaching and learning, were available with ideas that might be explored as possible means to solve some of the problems encountered. France has a centralized education system that officially prescribes the various courses of instruction that students follow.
In this system, some 50, of the best students undergo their first two years of tertiary education, at the end of which they sit competitive examinations. These gain them entry to engineering schools, for the great majority, or to the coles normales superieures in order to become researchers and teachers at either the tertiary or secondary level.
In mathematics, the same teacher teaches one class, of about 45 students, for some sixteen to twenty hours a week. The basic class either works St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me a whole group or is divided into subgroups according to the activity.
For two to five hours a week, the students work on exercises in groups of a half or a quarter of the class, with or without the computer. One hour a fortnight they work in groups of three for oral questions. This system underwent an important reform inaffecting both its structure and its programmes of instruction.
This reform aims to reduce the importance of mathematics with regard to other disciplines, to bring more coherence with physics and engineering science into their learning and to develop a spirit of initiative in the students. The mathematics syllabus is in two parts with accompanying comments.
The first sets out general aims while the other deals with the topics of linear algebra, calculus, and geometry. The students must know how to use both calculators and programs which perform symbolic manipulations. There are differences in content, according to the particular course of study, but the educational objectives are the same.
Mathematical education must simultaneously develop intuition, imagination, reasoning and rigour. In particular, historical texts and references allow the analysis of the interaction between mathematical problems and the construction of concepts, and brings to the fore the central role played by scientific questioning in the theoretical development of mathematics.
Moreover, St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me show that the sciences, and mathematics in particular, are in perpetual evolution and that dogmatism is not advisable. St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me innovation through these reforms was the introduction of project work.
The history of mathematics is also mentioned in relation to this: The study of a subject brings an increasing depth of theoretical understanding together with experimental aspects and applications as well as the application of computing methods. It may include an historical dimension. In the first year, students choose their project freely. In their second year they must fix their area and subject in St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me very wide framework.
At their final assessment each student presents a page long summary and speaks for 20 minutes before two examiners. This project work allows teachers the freedom to introduce the history of mathematics.
The Institute of Pedagogy, an official institution of the Ministry of Education, has responsibility for St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me curricula and producing textbooks for primary and secondary education.
Unlike in some other countries, each subject taught in Greek schools has only one official textbook, so their content is of particular importance. In secondary education, mathematics textbooks written during the period are still in use in Almost every chapter in these books ends up with a historical note, printed on a different colour of paper, which is strictly separated from the rest of the mathematical content of the chapter.
These notes cover in total pages out of the pages of the official mathematics textbooks used in the six grades of secondary education. According to the Guidelines for Teaching Mathematics edited by the Institute of Pedagogy, the official aim of supplying textbooks with historical notes is to stimulate students interest and love for mathematics. There are also brief recommendations to the teachers for St. Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me these notes in the classroom and for encouraging discussion on them.
But this tends not to happen. Although teachers consider some historical notes very interesting, the fact that they are presented in isolation from the rest of the text makes them appear to be useless and having nothing to do with the real problem of teaching and learning mathematics.
The teachers themselves have little historical experience or confidence, since there is at present an almost total absence of history of mathematics in either pre-service or in- service experiences of teachers.
But see 4. This negative practical response from teachers to the historical notes in current textbooks has caused some concern to the Institute of Pedagogys officials, who are considering a proposal for changing the position of historical material in textbooks. In a new 1. However, several initiatives have been undertaken by universities and academic institutions to develop materials suitable for both classroom use and teacher education courses, both pre-service and in-service.
These materials are used in teacher college courses and in-service programs and some are being slowly incorporated by teachers into their classrooms. This tradition is linked to the past influence of important scholars in the field of history of mathematics and epistemology, who were concerned both with problems of mathematical instruction and of teacher education. Evidence of this historical tradition in teaching is seen in the publication in Italy around of a mathematical journal for students St.
Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me which the history of mathematics was one of the basic topics treated. This Italian orientation towards a historical perspective in teaching is also present in the new Italian mathematical programmes, which are very centralized and have a national examination. For students aged the official programme states that At the end of the first two years of upper secondary school the student has to be able to put into a historical perspective some significant moments of the evolution of mathematical thinking.
This has been in place since For the students aged the concept since has been that: The teacher has to orient the student towards a reflection on the historical dimension of sciences.
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