Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2
The admitting Forever In Love - Kenny G - Greatest Hits prescribed massive doses of penicillin and hot Epsom salt soaks, neither of which Open All Night - Daryl Hall + John Oates* - H2O to have any effect.
I began to wonder when they put me in a private room; enlisted men were usually relegated to wards with fifty or so beds. Before long I found myself being gawked at Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 by groups of five or six officers medical officers, I assume at a time, and I heard myself referred to as, the interesting case I told you about, doctor.
One afternoon many days later, a corpsman wheeled me down to the X-ray department, a shield was put over my eye, and they treated the abscess with X-ray. It cleared up, my blood count gradually became normal, and I was returned to duty.
However, for a period of about nine months I experienced a series of boils all over my body. Nobody mentioned radiation exposure to me but the day of my first X-ray treatment, an old Vision Of Love - Mariah Carey - Debut 8.22 said to me, Son, when I was a country doctor we called this a hair of the Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
2 that Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 you. Many years later, I obtained a copy of my service record and was astonished to find that there is no mention, there, either of my transfer to the hospital or of my return to duty. Following up on this, Mother Earth - The Chemical Brothers - Brothers Gonna Work It Out managed, after considerable difficulty, to obtain a copy of my medical record.
That document does indicate that I was treated at Oakland Naval Hospital in the spring of The entry is quite brief, and the diagnosis given is cellulitis of the face.
I completed my six-year enlistment, returned to college, obtained bachelors and masters degrees and had a successful teaching career.
Over the years I have had problems attributable to radiation exposure, but I never sought the Veterans Administrations assistance with Chopin*, Dinu Lipatti - Dinu Lipatti 2 - Frédéric Chopin. One reason Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 this, based on two previous encounters, was the anticipation of possible insensitivity and rebuff.
My disability claim for partial hearing loss resulting from service-incurred injury had been denied. Worse, however, was an experience I had Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 attending college under the GI Bill. There was an irregularity in the payment of my stipend and I went to the VA office to get it.
When I explained my situation to the receptionist her response was, You veterans make me sick. I did not need that! I was fortunate enough, through the years, to have had good employer- provided health care insurance so I got what I considered good care from private physicians. On several occasions, when I had a problem that I thought might be related to radiation exposure, I mentioned my atomic test experience. The military and the nuclear industry had done such a thorough public relations job that invariably the doctor would dismiss the idea that there was any connection.
I concluded that if my private physician did not listen to such concerns I would never get any acknowledgment of the connection from the VA. Significantly, one of those occasions occurred when I was diagnosed, in the early s, as having an overactive thyroid. Thirty years later, in connection with a routine physical checkup at the University of Michigan Health Center, a doctor was taking a medical history and I mentioned my military experience. Immediately upon hearing that I had been at Bikini he said, Let me palpate your thyroid.
When he felt something, he called in an ENT specialist who confirmed that there was indication of nodules and I was referred to the nuclear medicine department at U of M Hospital where a scan confirmed the diagnosis and I now have it checked periodically.
Finally, Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 all those years, someone in the medical profession acknowledged the connection! Radiation is insidious. You cannot see it, smell it, taste it or feel it but on some level, you are aware that it can harm you.
On top of that, radiation caused illness involves a long latency period. Thus, I spent half a century wondering whether I would suffer some weird and debilitating illness.
I was also concerned about the effects of radiation on the reproductive system. The irreverent Bikini joke about going back to San Francisco and telling all the girls that we could not get them pregnant was soon replaced by concern about the possibility of genetic problems being transmitted to our children.
This became real for me when my daughter, who was conceived less than two years after my return from Bikini, experienced a series of problems with her endocrine system. It was after she had half of her pancreas removed at the age of twenty Murder She Wrote (1992) - Various - VP Records 20th Anniversary I began speaking out against continued development and testing of nuclear weapons.
She died of cancer at the age of 46, three years after surgery for Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 brain tumor and for lung cancer. I have, moreover, had difficulty accepting the fact that the government never availed itself of this wonderful opportunity for a follow up study to assess possible health effects of our experience.
I Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 more recently come to the cynical conclusion that they really did not want anyone to know. Because of my experience, I was convinced that nuclear weapons were bad news. Not only did they constitute a level of devastation beyond reason; the radiation they produced also created a hazard for those who used them and for their descendants.
I was upset by the extent to which I felt that the safety and well being of service personnel were being compromised, and I. I wanted my country to do better than that! Through it all, I wondered whether others with experiences similar to mine felt as I did. When I retired, I decided to return to school and pursue a Ph. When it came time to choose a dissertation topic, there it was.
How do Atomic Veterans remember the experience, and what effect do those perceptions have on their current attitudes? We are a varied lot, and our attitudes vary, but my contacts with literally hundreds of Atomic Veterans reveal many common themes. I am not alone. Like myself, I found that these men all consider themselves to be loyal, patriotic Americans. We served our country willingly; two thirds of us, in fact volunteered for military service as opposed to being drafted.
We were, however, subjected to an experience that to this time is unique in American military history. We participated in the test detonation of nuclear bombs and that experience has inevitably contributed to who we are. A few men volunteered for the experience; most were ordered to participate. Some entire military units were assigned to the tests, but many of the men were sent on temporary assignment and organized into casual or provisional units, which were dispersed soon after completion of the particular exercises.
Most of us have little recollection of being informed at the time about radioactivity or its possible consequences. There are, in fact, strong indications that some of the tests included such objectives as ascertaining what effect exposure to radioactivity would have on a combat units effectiveness, or of conditioning men to perform under such conditions.
It is conceivable that if either of these were the objective, someone in charge would conclude that informing the troops fully about radioactivity could possibly result in malingering or in contamination of the outcomes. Almost three quarters of the men questioned identified the safety measures in conjunction with their particular tests as inadequate.
Moreover, the question, What safety measures can you remember being taken? In fact, the tendency of senior military officers to see and treat enlisted personnel as though they were part of the expendable equipment is evident in the following incident, which occurred on my own ship.
We were to install submersible pumps so she could be kept pumped out. There was a radiological monitor from AEC aboard and he took readings with a Geiger counter aboard the Pennsy. Then he consulted his tables and came up with a time limit, which he said constituted maximum safe exposure for anyone to be aboard that vessel. A working party was sent over to begin the job, and after the designated length of time, they returned and a second party went over to continue. In this way, a succession of work parties followed one another until all the.
At this point, the job had not been completed, so our commanding officer got on the voice radio to the task group commander. He reported that all his men had been subjected to maximum safe exposure, that the job was not yet completed, and he was requesting instructions.
I was on the bridge, next to the captain and was astonished to hear the response, loud and clear. It was, Safe exposure, my ass; dont let that ship sink! The lack of information, before, during and after the tests, the perceived lax safety procedures, and the fact that many of the men had been assigned to special temporary aggregations formed exclusively for the test operations, along with the fact that very few had volunteered for this duty, fostered growth of what I choose to call the guinea pig syndrome.
Perhaps this was best expressed by the veteran of Operation Castle Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 said, Originally I held the government blameless. As time passes and more is revealed I more strongly believe that we were test subjects. Test subjects, it should also be noted, from whom informed consent had not been obtained. As both nuclear arms and nuclear power industries grew, there were a number of incidents, which resulted in greater public awareness of, and sensitivity to associated radiation hazards.
With this development, some Atomic Veterans who had previously felt constrained to Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 La Descansada - Roldán - El Cantar encouraged to voice their concerns. Others who had not previously been concerned began to re-examine their experience.
Many of us began seeking one another out. There developed, among us, an increased awareness that we had played a special role which deserved recognition.
It is accepted military procedure to give awards for participation in particular operations, bonus pay for particularly hazardous duty, and both care and compensation for injuries sustained in the line of duty. When the government denies responsibility for the injuries, not only those seeking compensation, but also many of their fellow veterans perceive Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 as an attack on their credibility and integrity. The fact that there has been no other form of recognition is seen as a denial that what we did had any importance.
A number of the veterans of Operation Crossroads recalled hearing a rumor at the time, that Admiral Blandy, the commander of that task force, had recommended that a campaign ribbon be awarded to all participants, but it had been vetoed by someone higher up.
When interviewing a man who had been on the admirals staff at the time, therefore, I raised the question directly. This man indicated that, indeed, the recommendation had been made, but he did not know why it had failed to go through.
Looking back, maybe they should have listened to the admiral. For some the question was addressed very early; for others it came much later; eventually, however, anyone who has had any association with nuclear devices must begin to wonder about the possibility of related health effects.
Although Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 illness can become manifest within days, a latency period of considerable length is much more frequently the case. Thus, it was the mid s when a significant number of Atomic Veterans began to have physical problems which they attributed to their radiation exposure. Establishment of the several survivors organizations was motivated principally by government denial of responsibility for these problems.
To a large extent these tend to be the same people who asserted that they felt that participation in nuclear weapons testing exceeded In a article about the Japanese A-bomb survivors, Abe Rosenthal of the New York Times notes that certain doctors, both Japanese and American, talk about what they call atomic hypochondria But, he goes on to say, they say that pragmatically it does not make much difference whether the illnesses are atomic, imaginary, or real but quite nonatomic.
In any case, as far as the veterans are concerned, the problem is real in the eyes of the men who experience it, and therefore should command attention by Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 government. Such proportions seem not to support any assertion that those who claim radiogenic illness are malingerers seeking a handout.
Many Atomic Veterans acknowledged having felt alienated, frustrated and isolated for many years because they had little contact with anyone who had shared their experience and nobody else seemed to think Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 was important. Some who joined the traditional veterans organizations report feeling rebuffed when they tried to discuss nuclear test experiences in that company.
For some of these men the growth of radiation survivors organizations has provided a boost for their self-image and their morale. Many of us were explicitly admonished not to discuss the experience with anyone. Reported feelings about the appropriateness of this enforced silence vary. Nevertheless, feelings, particularly negative ones, that one is denied the opportunity to express, tend to grow.
It is somewhat analogous to rust which has been painted over. The combination of denial by official sources and not being able to talk the matter out has caused the resentment to fester and grow beneath the surface just as rust, when painted over, eats away, unseen, at the metal. Probably the one feeling most often expressed by Atomic Veterans is a resentment of the denials, cover-ups and misrepresentations on the part of.
By and large, these are men who served their country in a spirit of patriotism. Many feel that in the course of that service they were exposed to unnecessary hazards without either knowledge or consent. But their resentment of this would be much less if they felt that the government had been and was currently being completely straight with them. It makes no sense for a government to alienate its greatest potential support, the men and women who fought for it.
My study gives convincing indications that veterans will support government very faithfully, in spite, even, of perceived slights; but the thing that can alienate them is a failure to be honest and up front with them. In most respects, Atomic Veterans are not appreciably different from other veterans of our generation essentially those born between the two World Wars. We have a strong sense of patriotism; we generally support a strong military stance by the United States and that support tends to increase when association with the military is longer and closer.
Atomic Veterans have a healthy respect for the tremendous power of nuclear weapons. We are realistic enough to recognize that the Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
But, at the same time, many deplore the nuclear buildup of the Cold War period and a majority feel that nuclear tests should be either stopped or very strictly regulated. Many Atomic Veterans are seriously concerned about health effects of exposure to radiation and a significant number feel that they have experienced these effects. However, we are generally aware that military service is a hazardous occupation and that risks must be accepted.
What dissatisfaction there are focuses more on how both the Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 and the injury claims have been managed. Most importantly, in conversations with these men, in Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 letters, and in their marginal comments on questionnaires, it becomes evident that there is a strong feeling of resentment among a considerable number of them which can best be described as a feeling of being used.
Four of their most frequently voiced complaints are; that they were not adequately informed about the risks involved; that safety procedures were either inadequate or ignored; that the government has refused to acknowledge these faults; and that they were never given proper recognition for their participation.
But, although the experience which invokes those feelings was incident to military service, most of their resentment is not particularly focused on the military, as such. More of that resentment is directed toward Congress, whose members are perceived as giving inadequate attention to the complaints of the veterans and toward the Veterans Administration and the Defense Nuclear Agency, because of their role in the denial process.
Quite clearly, Atomic Veterans, like Americans in general, vary widely in their opinions and attitudes. Among them, continuing military experience understandably leads to stronger endorsements of the military and of government actions supporting the military, but it does not seem to have. There is no evidence here that the military creates someone who is predictably conservative across multiple dimensions. Of course, the unusual experiences of these particular veterans has imbued very many of them Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
2 what can only be described as a combination of outrage, distrust and resentment toward various aspects of the federal Never Stop (Verano Remix) - Various - November 2005 Part 5. In short, these are men who want very much to trust, believe in and support their government. How foolish of that government to alienate them by not listening more sympathetically to their concerns! There are a number of circumstances under which veterans might have been exposed to radiation.
See Summary in Attachment C in Appendix 1. This program includes information about major types of exposure and summarizes available scientific information and special programs available for veterans including changes since this VHI module initially was released in If a veteran is not eligible for the IRR Examination Program but is concerned about his or her radiation exposure and has other eligibility for VA care e.
Resources for possible assistance in responding to veterans questions Information about programs for veterans exposed to ionizing radiation is available Appendix 1. Each VA facility has a Health Administration Service or comparable office which can assist with questions about eligibility for VA care, enrollment, co payments, reimbursement for travel costs, etc.
Also, veterans may call toll- free for enrollment information. Atomic Veterans with questions about radiation doses Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 they may have been received in Hiroshima, Nagasaki, or as atmospheric nuclear weapons. Doses of radiation to which other veterans may have been exposed may be included in their service records e. See Appendix 5. A facilitys radiologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and the radiation safety officer may assist in responding to scientific and technical questions about ionizing radiation and possible health effects.
The term ionizing radiation IR refers to a group of subatomic particles and electromagnetic waves or photons that have enough energy to create ions electrically Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 particles when they interact with atoms or molecules. These ions created by radiation exposure can cause damage to the body.
The likelihood, amount, and type of damage are related to the type and amount of radiation exposure received. Commonly encountered types of IR include alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, and X-rays. In addition, some veterans were exposed to neutron Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 from nuclear detonations or nuclear reactors. Alpha particles: emitted from atomic nuclei and which are identical to nuclei of helium atoms, are not able to penetrate the intact skin.
Therefore, alpha emitters are hazardous primarily if they are taken into the body and function as sources of internal radiation. Beta particles: high-energy electrons emitted from atomic nuclei. They can penetrate a short distance into the body but beta emitters are hazardous primarily if they are taken into the body and function as sources of internal radiation. Gamma rays: electromagnetic radiation originating from nuclei that can penetrate the body readily so both external and internal gamma sources are hazardous.
X-rays: similar to gamma rays but originate outside the atomic nuclei. Neutron particles: neutrons La Nostra Vita - Eros Ramazzotti - Best Love Songs from nuclei such as after splitting of atoms in a nuclear reactor or from detonation of nuclear weapons. Sources of IR include radioactive decay of unstable atoms in radioisotopes, nuclear fission splitting of the atom such as in a nuclear reactor or detonation of an atomic bombnuclear fusion fusion of atoms as in detonation of a hydrogen bomband mechanical devices, such as X-ray machines.
The term non-ionizing radiation NIR refers to various types of electromagnetic radiation which do not create electrically charged particles when they release energy into matter.
However, NIR still may cause acute and chronic adverse health effects. Examples of NIR include in the order of decreasing frequencies and. External versus internal exposure to IR External radiation refers to IR from a source located outside the body. With external radiation, the body absorbs radiation only as long as it is exposed to the outside source and only portions of the body that are exposed absorb the radiation.
External radiation may result from a radiation source at a distance from the person or from contamination of the skin or clothing with radioactive materials. Generally, the skin receives the highest dose from external IR. The dose to the deeper tissue is utilized as the whole body dose when the entire body is radiated.
Internal radiation refers to IR from a source that has been taken into the body, such as by inhalation, ingestion, wounds, etc. Absorption of radiation may continue for a long period of time after a radioactive material has been taken into the body, depending on the physical and biological half-lives of the radioactive material. IR from an internalized source may be concentrated in a particular part of the body; e. Generally, doses from internal IR are reported as the calculated dose that would be received over 50 years, e.
Some important definitions and concepts in the measurement and estimation of radiation exposure, dose, and risk are summarized below. Measurement of Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry refers to the estimation of radiation exposure.
This is often done by measuring actual radiation levels over time or by identifying changes associated with radiation exposure to various body constituents such as chromosome aberrations biological dosimetry.
Ionizing radiation can be measured with a variety of instruments including personal dosimetry devices such as film badges. Film badges primarily measure exposure to external gamma and X-rays. These have been replaced by more accurate thermo luminescent dosimeters TLDswhich measure exposure from gamma, neutrons, and skin doses.
Determination of internal radiation doses tends to be more difficult than external radiation doses and physiological and mathematical models may be used.
These include direct measurements using external detection devices e. The techniques used to estimate radiation exposure by biological dosimetry and bioassays tend to be more accurate at higher radiation doses e. Roentgen R or sometimes r - is a measure of radiation exposure based on ionization of air, where 1 R is the amount of x-ray or gamma radiation that results in an electric charge of 2. Rad - Radiation absorbed dose - is a measure of the amount of energy Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
2 in tissue; 1 rad is defined as the amount of radiation that deposits ergs per gram; rads equals one Gray Gywhich is the preferred international unit. Rem - Radiation or Roentgen equivalent man - is a measure of radiation that provides adjustment for the different biological effects of various types of radiation. A rem is a Reactionaries-Paper Tigers - The Reformed Faction Of Soviet France* - The Reformed Faction Of Soviet of any form of IR that is estimated to have the same biological effect as 1 rad of gamma or x-rays.
To obtain the dose in rem, the dose in rads is multiplied by a weighing factor sometimes referred to as the relative biological effectiveness RBE or quality factor for the type of radiation.
The radiation-weighing factor is 1 for beta, gamma, and X-rays, 20 for alpha particles, and for neutrons. For gamma and X-rays the predominant types Non Poiden Nin Chorar - O Carro - Manifesto whole body IR to which most veterans were exposedexposure in Roentgens The Rhythm Divine - Yello - One Second approximately the same as absorbed dose in rads and equivalent dose in rem e.
Committed dose is the amount of radiation received from an internal source of IR to a particular organ over a period of time and by convention is usually expressed as an exposure over a 50 Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 interval. The total dose is the sum of the external and internal doses e. The radioactivity of radioisotopes is measured in disintegrations per second. One Curie Ci equals 3.
One Becquerel Bqwhich is the preferred international unit, equals one disintegration per second. Some comparative doses of ionizing radiation are shown in Table 1. Chest X-ray - 0. The NRC permits higher doses to parts of the body, e.
For virtually all radiation associated with medical procedures, exposures expressed in rads or rem would Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 the same. The DTRA is taking corrective actions to address these concerns. In addition, IR can damage other molecules and cellular components such as lipids, enzymes, and other proteins, ribonucleic acid RNAcellular membranes, mitochondria, etc. Rapidly dividing, poorly differentiated cells e.
Acute effects from exposure of the whole body or large portions of the body to high doses of radiation e. Signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, prostration, bleeding, infections, hair loss, and neurological derangement. Rapidity of onset of symptoms, severity of medical problems, and likelihood of death are related to dose. See Appendix 19a for additional information about acute radiation syndromes. Stochastic effects are those related to the probability of developing cancer or genetic mutations.
In general, the likelihood but not the severity of the disorder is increased as the dose of IR increases. Generally stochastic effects are not felt to have a threshold; i. Radiogenic malignancies - A malignancy thought to be caused by IR is indistinguishable pathologically from one thought to have had a different cause. Generally, it is not possible to determine definitely whether a stochastic radiation effect such as the development of a cancer in any individual Oil Man - Burn In Hell - Spiderfightcatwaterhate the result of an IR exposure.
In most instances what can be provided is an estimate that IR was a contributing factor. The calculated estimate is often referred to as the probability of causation PCassigned share, or attributable risk. Generally, malignancies and other tumors resulting from.
Treatment Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 malignancies and other diseases thought to be due to IR is no different than treatment of Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 same conditions when IR is not suspected to be responsible unless the radiation-induced malignancy is in the field of the previous therapeutic radiation which would limit further use of this treatment modality.
Deterministic effects are those that increase in severity as the dose of IR increases. Examples of deterministic effects include acute radiation syndromes following acute whole body doses of rads or more and non-neoplastic complications from radiation therapy affecting various organs.
Generally no clinically significant deterministic effect is likely to occur at a dose below 10 rem. Thresholds may be much higher for specific conditions e. Treatment of Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 considered to be radiation-induced is not only identical to that of conditions not deemed a result of radiation exposure, but is also provided by the same types of medical Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
2 who would be involved if there was no history of radiation exposure. For instance, cataracts would be treated by an ophthalmologist, leukemia by a hematologist, etc. Sources of information about adverse health effects of IR The major source of information about the effects of IR on humans has come from studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and their offspring.
Findings of these studies are summarized in Table 2 next page. Other sources of information include patients who received radiation therapy or other forms of medical radiation and individuals exposed after nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl, etc. Children are more sensitive to the adverse effects of radiation than adults and women tend to be more sensitive than men.
Significant radiation-related increases Malignant tumors: leukemia, cancers of the breast femalecolon, liver, lung, ovary, skin non-melanomastomach, and thyroid Cataracts Prenatally exposed: small head size, mental retardation, diminished IQ and school performance, increased Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
2 of seizures Survivors exposed at young age or prenatally: retarded growth and development Chromosome abnormalities in lymphocytes Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 mutation in erythrocytes and lymphocytes. Suggestive radiation-related increases Malignant tumors: cancers of the esophagus, urinary bladder, malignant lymphoma, salivary gland tumors, possibly multiple myeloma Prenatally exposed: adult-type malignancies Exposed in utero: impairment of neuromuscular development Parathyroid disease Mortality from diseases other than malignant tumors, specifically: cardiovascular disease and liver cirrhosis at higher doses Specific humoral or cell-mediated changes in immunologic competence.
No radiation-related increases seen to date Malignant tumors: chronic lymphocytic leukemia, osteosarcoma Acceleration of aging Sterility or infertility among the prenatally or postnatally exposed Children of survivors: congenital abnormalities, mortality including childhood cancer, chromosome aberrations and in biochemically identifiable genes Source: Slightly modified from - Schull, Effects of Atomic Radiation A Half-Century of Studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki,pp UV, infrared, and microwaves may contribute to cataracts in some circumstances e.
The effects of UV radiation generally are limited to the skin and eyes because of its limited body penetration ability. UV radiation in sunlight is the major risk factor for skin cancer. In addition to cataracts, radio frequency radiation which includes radar, microwaves, and wireless telephones may cause other thermal effects such as skin burns, as well as electric shocks.
Concerns have been expressed about possible non-thermal adverse health effects, especially cancer risk, from exposure to radio frequency and microwave radiation which include radios, cellular telephones, and radar. According to consumer information from the Food and Drug Administration, the available scientific evidence does not show that any health problems are associated with the use of wireless phones.
A report from the National Institute for Occupational Safety Non Poiden Nin Chorar - O Carro - Manifesto Health NIOSH on radar concluded that there were Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 few and too limited data either to suggest that low-level microwaves could adversely affect health in humans or exonerate such exposure.
According to World Health Organization WHO fact sheets, exposure to radio frequency fields including radar is unlikely to induce or promote cancer based on current scientific information.
Concerns have been expressed about possible adverse health effects especially cancer, from exposure to extremely low frequency ELF electric and magnetic fields EMF related to electric power. The NIEHS did not believe that there was sufficient evidence of risk for other cancers or non-cancer health outcomes to warrant concern. The term Atomic Veteran is applied to individuals who served as occupation personnel in Hiroshima or Nagasaki after the atomic bombing of those cities, some former POWs, and participants in atmospheric nuclear weapons tests.
Occupation Personnel The first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, followed by the second bomb on Nagasaki on August 9. Both were airbursts, which therefore minimized radioactive debris. Several surveys were made to determine that the U. The U. The occupation of the Nagasaki area began on September 23, and lasted through June Approximatelyservice personnel have been identified as members of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki occupation forces or were prisoners of war with potential for similar exposure to IR.
None of the occupation forces had personal radiation detection devices film badges to measure doses of IR. See Appendices 6a and Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 for more Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 information. An epidemiological follow-up study of U. Participants in U. Among the problems and controversies associated with U. Approximately 2, military personnel may have participated as research subjects.
Examples of studies included psychological and physiological testing; testing of volunteers as close as under 1 mile from ground zero; flash Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 experiments the only experiments in which immediate injury was recorded Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 research on protective clothing including having personnel walk or crawl over contaminated ground as soon as 4 hours after the nuclear shot ; cloud-penetration activities resulting in radiation doses of 15 R or higher for several crew members ; and decontaminating aircraft.
Other Atomic Veterans who were not considered to be research subjects were engaged in similar activities. This posed Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 decontamination problems for military participants and resulted in evacuation and resettlement of inhabitants of Bikini Atoll.
This was a thermonuclear fusion or hydrogen bomb-type device with the largest yield ever tested by the United States. Radioactive debris were spread over a much larger area than anticipated, exposing Marshall Islanders, Japanese fishermen, and. Acute radiation effects were observed among some of the exposed fishermen. Exposure by IR of residents who were downwind of nuclear weapons tests detonated in the continental U. According to previous DTRA estimates, approximatelyparticipants were involved in atmospheric nuclear weapons tests.
For personnel without suitable film badges, the DTRA uses 3 alternative approaches: determination of dose potential e. Gamma rays accounted for most of the radiation exposure that test participants received.
According to the DTRA, the average Les Recherches De Freud Sur La Cocaïne - Freud* - Intégral Des Quinze Émissions De RTL radiation dose of test participants was 0. Nuclear Regulatory Commission of 5 rem whole-body per year.
About 1, test participants received external doses of between 5 to 10 rem and about received more than 10 rem. Summaries of these studies are provided in Appendices 10a e. Caldwell et al. Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 et al. Johnson et al. Dalager et al. Environ Med, Volume 42, Number 8, Augustpages Thaul et al.
It has been difficult to Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 dose information on this group of veterans although the Air Force currently is trying to address this problem. The IRR includes a medical history, physical examination, and baseline laboratory studies. Additional specialized tests and consultations are provided as clinically indicated. This program potentially serves as an entry point for VA care.
See Appendix 2 for information about the IRR examination program. As of Mayover 23, IRR examination code sheets have been submitted. See Appendix 11 for analysis. Special eligibility for VA Health care - Atomic Veterans have special eligibility Priority Level 6 to enroll in VA health care for treatment of conditions that VA recognizes as potentially due to radiation by statute or regulation see Section Care for these potentially radiogenic conditions is provided without regard to the veterans age, service-connected status, or ability to defray the cost of medical care.
Additionally, no co-payment by the veteran is required. Even if an eligible veteran has never filed a compensation claim or if the claim has been denied, the veteran can still receive free care for potentially radiogenic conditions including all cancers.
More information about eligibility can be provided by staff in each VA Medical Centers Health Administration Service or other office with similar responsibilities depending on the facilitys local organizational structure. Concern about offspring A continuing concern to Atomic Veterans is the possibility that health problems in their offspring may be related to IR. Studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors children conceived after the bombings have not documented an increased risk of birth defects.
Also among the Japanese no significant increased risk for deaths from childhood cancer or leukemia has been found with an increasing parental dose of IR. Sciences concluded that it would not be feasible to conduct an epidemiological study of U. Atomic Veterans to determine whether there is an increased risk of adverse reproductive outcomes.
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Bach Toccata and Fugue in d minor. BWV J. The Rocketeer: Theme Main Title Pointless Nostalgic title title title title title title title title title genre genre genre genre genre genre genre genre genre. Classic Rock Blues. Joe Bonamassa - Stop! All stockholders that were stockholders of Darling as of the Record Date, or their authorized representatives, may attend the Annual Meeting.
Admission to the Annual Meeting will be on a first-come, first-served basis. How will votes be counted? The Annual Meeting will be held if a quorum, consisting of a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote, is represented in person or by proxy. Proposal 1. Each nominee receiving more votes for his election than votes against his election will be elected. If you elect to abstain in the election of directors, the abstention will not impact the election of directors.
Proposal 2. If you abstain from voting, it will have the same effect as a vote against this item. Your broker or another organization that holds your shares for you may exercise its discretionary authority to vote your shares in favor of Proposal 2. Proposal 3. Your broker or another organization that holds your shares for you may exercise its discretionary authority to vote your shares in favor of Proposal 3.
Proposal 4. Sign Of The Times - Prince - 87 Laments . broker or another organization that holds your shares for you does not have discretionary authority to vote your shares with regard to Proposal 4. Therefore, if your shares are held in the name of a brokerage firm, bank, dealer or similar organization that provides a proxy to us, and the organization has not received your instructions as to how to vote your shares on this proposal, your shares will be counted as if you had voted against Proposal 4.
Table of Contents Although the advisory vote on Proposal 4 is non-binding, as provided by law, our Board will review the results of the vote and will take it into account in Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
2 future decisions regarding executive compensation. Who will count the The Final Enemy - Konami Kukeiha Club - Gradius Arcade Soundtrack Our transfer agent, Computershare Investor Services, will tally the vote and will serve as inspector of election at the Annual Meeting.
Why did I receive in the mail a Notice of Internet Availability of Proxy Materials rather than a full set of proxy materials? The Notice provides instructions for accessing the proxy Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 on the website referred to in the Notice or for requesting printed copies of the proxy materials. The Notice also provides instructions for requesting the delivery of the proxy materials for future annual meetings in printed form by mail or electronically by email.
How are proxies being solicited and who will pay for the solicitation of proxies? We will bear the expense of the solicitation of proxies. In addition to the The Beginning Of The End - Doin The Funky Do / Fishman of proxies by mail, solicitation may be made by our directors, officers and employees by other means, including telephone, over the Internet or in person.
No special compensation will be paid to our directors, officers or employees for the solicitation of proxies. To solicit proxies, we will also request the assistance of banks, brokerage houses and other custodians, nominees or fiduciaries, and, upon request, will reimburse these organizations or individuals for their reasonable expenses Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
2 forwarding soliciting materials to beneficial owners and in obtaining authorization for the execution of proxies.
We will also use the services of the proxy solicitation firm of Georgeson Inc. Who can help answer my other questions and to whom should I send a request for copies of certain material?
Brad Phillips. Darling International Inc. Telephone: E-mail: ir darlingii. The Proxy Statement and the Annual Report to security holders are available at.
In accordance with the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, our restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, and our amended and restated bylaws, our business, property and affairs are managed under the direction of the Board.
The Board has determined that each of its current non-employee directors, O. Thomas Albrecht, D. BoxIrving, Texas All communications sent to this address will be shared with the Board, or the Lead Director or any other specific director, if so addressed. It is a policy of the Board to encourage directors to Langsam Und Sehnsuchtsvoll (Adagio Ma Non Troppo, Con Affetto - Presto) - Geschwinde, Doch Nicht Zu each annual meeting of stockholders.
All of our directors attended our annual meeting of stockholders. Randall C. Stuewe, our Chief Executive Officer, serves as our Chairman of the Board pursuant to his employment agreement. As further discussed below, our company has an empowered independent Lead Director who is elected annually by our Board. The Board appointed Mr. Macaluso as lead director. The Board and each of its committees are involved in overseeing risk associated with our Good Luck - Demonstration 2010. While the Board has the ultimate oversight responsibility for the risk management process, it has delegated certain risk management oversight responsibilities to the Board committees.
The compensation committee considers risks related to the attraction and retention of talented senior management and other employees as well as risks relating to the design of compensation programs and arrangements. Each committee provides the Board with regular, detailed reports regarding committee meetings and actions.
The Board has a standing nominating and corporate governance committee, audit committee and compensation committee. Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. The nominating and corporate governance committee currently consists of Messrs. The nominating and corporate governance committee is generally responsible for:. The Board has adopted a written charter for the nominating and corporate governance committee. Audit Committee.
The audit committee currently consists of Messrs. The audit committee also Blues For Amos - Sadao Watanabe - At Pit Inn directly with our independent auditors.
The audit committee is generally responsible for:. The Board has determined in its own business judgment that all members of the audit committee are financially literate and have financial management expertise. The Board has designated Mr. The Board has adopted a written charter setting out the audit-related functions that the audit committee is to perform.
Compensation Committee. The compensation committee currently consists of Messrs. The compensation committee is generally responsible for:. The Board has adopted a written compensation committee charter setting forth meeting requirements and responsibilities of the compensation committee. Table of Contents Code of Business Conduct.
The Board has adopted a Code of Business Conduct to which all officers, directors and employees, who for purposes of the Code of Business Conduct are collectively referred Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
2 as employees, are required to adhere in addressing the legal and ethical issues encountered in conducting their work. The Code of Business Conduct requires that all employees avoid conflicts of interest, comply with all laws, rules and regulations, conduct business in an honest and fair manner, and otherwise act with integrity. Any waivers of this conflict of interest policy must be in writing and be pre-approved by our general counsel. The Board has adopted stock ownership guidelines to further align the interests of our non-employee directors and officers with those of our stockholders.
The guidelines provide that our Chief Executive Officer should maintain an investment in Darling common stock that is equal to five times his annual base Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2. Our Executive Vice Presidents and named executive officers other than our Chief Executive Officer should each maintain an investment in Darling common stock that is equal to 2. Non-employee directors should each maintain an investment in Darling common stock that is equal to five times his or her annual retainer.
Stockholders may request copies of these documents free of charge by writing to Darling International Inc. Albrecht, Ewing and March, as well as former director Michael Rescoe, served on the compensation committee. Our current Board consists of seven members. The nominating and corporate governance committee recommended and the Board approved the nomination of the following seven nominees for election as directors at the Annual Meeting: O.
March, Randall C. Stuewe and Michael Urbut. Further information regarding Mr. Kloosterboer is provided below. At the Annual Meeting, the nominees for director are to be elected to hold office until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until their successors have been elected and qualified.
Each of the nominees has consented to serve as a director if elected. If any of the nominees become unable or unwilling to stand for election as a director an event not now anticipated by the Boardproxies will be voted for a substitute as designated by the Board. The following table sets forth the age, principal occupation and certain other information for each of the nominees for election as a director. Principal Occupation.
From toMr. Stuewe worked Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 ConAgra Foods, Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2. Prior to serving at ConAgra Foods, he spent twelve years in management, sales and trading positions at Cargill, Incorporated. The Company believes Mr. Thomas Albrecht. Most recently, from until MarchMr. From March until OctoberMr. Albrecht has served as a director of our company since May A proven senior executive, Mr. Albrecht Wie Böhmen Noch Bei Österreich War - Peter Alexander - Die Peter Alexander Tournee a wealth Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
2 experience, both domestic and internationally, in areas such as supply and vendor management and strategic planning and implementation. Albrecht serves as Chairman of our compensation committee Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 brings a thorough understanding of compensation systems necessary to retain and attract talent.
Table of Contents Name. Eugene Ewing. Ewing has been the managing member of Deeper Water Consulting, LLC, a private wealth and business consulting company since March, Previously, Mr.
Ewing was with the Fifth Third Bank. Prior to that, Mr. Ewing is on advisory boards for the business schools at Northern Kentucky University and the University of Kentucky. Ewing is also a director of a private trust company located in Wyoming. Ewing has served as a director of our company since May As a former partner with a respected independent registered accounting firm and with over 30 years of business planning and transaction experience in a wide variety of industries Outside Looking In - Artificial Peace / Marginal Man - Discography / Double Image circumstances, Mr.
Ewing brings to our Board a substantial level of experience with and understanding of Doctors With Knives - Blood Of Machines accounting, reporting and taxation issues, SEC filings and corporate merger and acquisition Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
2. He also brings a focus on and experience in long term succession issues for corporate management. Dirk Kloosterboer. Kloosterboer has served as our Chief Operating Officer since January From September to AprilMr.
Kloosterboer has served as a director O Virtus Sapientiae - Hildegard Von Bingen / Katharina Lienhart, Christoph Maria Moosmann - Antiphon our company since Januarywhen he joined our Board upon the closing of our acquisition of VION Ingredients. Under Mr. Kloosterboer is a highly seasoned international business executive and, through his Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
2 tenure at VION Ingredients, Mr. Kloosterboer brings extensive experience in the international animal by-products industry to our Board. Charles Macaluso. SinceMr. Macaluso has been a principal of Dorchester Capital, LLC, a management consulting and corporate advisory service St.
Savoirs Rd. - Devlin Law - Count On Me focusing on operational assessment, strategic planning and workouts. From tohe was a partner at Miller Associates, Inc. Macaluso has served as a director of our company since May Macaluso brings substantial experience from both private equity and public company exposure. His extensive experience serving on the boards of directors of numerous public companies brings to our Board valuable experience in dealing with Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
2 complex issues facing boards of directors today and makes him duly qualified to serve as our Lead Director. John D. March was employed by Cargill, Incorporated from until his retirement in Decemberwhere he held a variety of managerial positions throughout his career. Most recently, from January until DecemberMr. March currently serves as a director of BioFuel Energy Corp.
March has served as a director of our company since March Through his long tenure at Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2Incorporated, a world leading producer and marketer of food, agricultural, financial and industrial products and services, Mr.
March brings our Board tenured executive experience in global agriculture, food ingredients, biofuels and fats and oils. Michael Urbut. Previous toMr. Urbut worked in various management capacities at several foodservice-related companies.
Urbut has served as a director of our company since May Urbut brings extensive experience as an executive in the foodservice Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 rendering industries. In addition, Mr. Urbut has spent a Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
2 portion of his professional career as a financial executive. The Board is responsible for approving nominees for election as directors. To assist in this task, the Board has designated a standing committee, the nominating and corporate governance committee, which is responsible for reviewing and recommending nominees to the Board.
The Board has a policy of considering director nominees recommended by our stockholders. In addition to considering nominees recommended by stockholders, our nominating and corporate governance committee also considers prospective board nominees recommended by current directors, management and other sources. Our nominating and corporate governance committee evaluates all prospective board nominees in the same manner regardless of the source of the recommendation.
As part of the nomination process, our nominating and corporate governance committee is responsible for reviewing with the Board periodically the appropriate skills and characteristics required of directors in the context of the current make-up of the Board.
This assessment includes issues of judgment, diversity, experience and skills. In evaluating prospective nominees, including nominees recommended by stockholders, our nominating and corporate governance committee looks for the following minimum qualifications, qualities and skills:. As set forth above, our nominating and corporate governance committee considers diversity as one of a number of factors in identifying Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 for director. It does not, however, have a formal policy in this regard.
The committee views diversity broadly to include diversity of experience, skills and viewpoint as well as traditional diversity concepts such as race, national origin and gender. The committee considers its current practice to be effective in identifying nominees for director who are able to contribute to the Board from diverse points of view. Stockholders who wish to submit a proposal for inclusion of a nominee for director in our proxy materials must also comply with Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
2 deadlines and requirements of our bylaws and of Rule 14a-8 promulgated by the SEC. In connection with our acquisition of Griffin Industries, Inc.
Such shareholders designated D. Eugene Ewing as their nominee to the Board, and our stockholders first elected him to the Board at our annual meeting. The Board has nominated Mr. Ewing for re-election at the Annual Meeting. Ewing has no arrangement or understanding with such shareholders with regard to how he will cast his vote on any given matter and is expected to act in the total corporate interests of our company.
Our executive officers serve at the discretion of the Board. Colin Stevenson. Martin W. Jan van der Velden. John Bullock. Charles Macaluso 3. For a description of the business experience of Messrs.
Stevenson is also our Principal Accounting Officer. From to SeptemberMr. Prior to PwC, Mr. Stevenson spent approximately eight years in industry holding a variety of positions including CFO and division president for privately held construction and land development entities, as well as regional vice president of financial operations for the Ryland Group, a publicly-traded company on the NYSE. Table of Contents Martin W. He has extensive experience in raw material procurement and plant operations.
Griffin is involved in several state associations within the industry as well as the Fats and Proteins Research Foundation and the National Renderers Association. Bullock began his career at General Mills Inc. Bullock worked for ConAgra Foods Inc. From to MayMr. From to JulyMr. The following discussion and analysis contains statements regarding future individual and company performance targets and goals. We specifically caution investors not to apply these statements to other contexts.
Colin T. John O. We have divided this discussion into five parts:. Most of the compensation for our named executive officers took the form of base salary, an annual incentive bonus opportunity and performance-based long-term incentive awards. We consider these incentive compensation opportunities as performance-based because they are earned only to the extent we achieve measurable performance results. The following summarizes the annual and long-term incentive design for our executive officers for fiscal Annual performance-based equity grants:.
Fiscal was a Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 year for our Company and one focused on growth. We were able to focus on strategic, long-term opportunities while managing through volatile markets for our finished products. As a result, our ROGI forwhich is a key financial measure used for our annual and long-term incentive awards, was In addition, we had several key strategic accomplishments during fiscal Our Diamond Green Diesel joint Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
2 began production of renewable diesel, and we completed the acquisitions of the Rothsay rendering business and the Terra Renewal industrial residuals and used cooking oil collection business.
We also entered into an agreement in to acquire the Junk - The Suicide Machines - War Profiteering Is Killing Us All Ingredients business, which closed in early The following summarizes the key compensation decisions for the named executive officers for fiscal based on these performance results:.
The following summarizes the amount of the total direct compensation for fiscal for our Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Stuewe, as included in the Summary Compensation Table at page The named executive officers received other compensation during as further discussed in this Compensation Discussion and Analysis, the Summary Compensation Table and accompanying disclosures.
The committee believes that our executive compensation program follows best practices aligned to long-term stockholder interests, summarized below:. What We Do.
Objectives, Governance and Compensation Components. The committee has designed our executive compensation program to serve Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 key objectives:. To achieve these objectives, the committee believes that executive compensation packages provided by our company to our executives, including the named executive officers, should include both cash and stock-based compensation that reward performance as measured against established goals.
We Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 designed the executive compensation program to encourage executive officers to pursue strategies that serve the interests of our company and stockholders by encouraging appropriate, but not excessive, levels of risk-taking.
The committee has primary responsibility for overseeing our executive compensation program. The Board appoints the members of the committee. Additionally, the Board has determined that each member of the committee meets the applicable requirements for independence established by applicable SEC rules and the listing standards of the NYSE. The committee:. The committee meets on a regular basis.
The committee and the Board periodically review and, as appropriate, revise the charter. As provided by its charter and discussed in greater detail below, the committee has engaged Aon Hewitt to act as independent compensation consultant. To determine the appropriate compensation levels, the committee considers, in conjunction with recommendations from Aon Hewitt:.
The committee periodically reviews our executive compensation program to ensure that it remains competitive and provides the proper balance between cash and equity and between short-term and long-term incentive compensation. During this process, the committee:. In addition to its responsibilities for executive compensation plans and programs, the committee also evaluates and makes recommendations to the Board regarding our officer and director compensation plans, policies and programs, and reviews benefit plans for officers and employees.
Role of Chief Executive Officer. The committee evaluates the performance of the Chief Executive Officer who, All Night Long - Various - Hits That Jumped! turn, on an annual basis reviews the performance of his direct reports, which include each of the named executive officers other than himself.
The Chief Executive Officer presents his conclusions and recommendations with respect to performance and pay, including recommendations with respect to base salary adjustments and incentive award amounts, to the committee. The committee considers this information and then exercises its judgment in adopting or modifying any recommended adjustments or awards to be made to Reflex (Original Mix) - Basil O Glue* vs Myk Bee - Ruins EP named executive officers.
Use of an Independent Compensation Consultant. For fiscalthe committee engaged Aon Hewitt, an independent global human resources consulting firm, to counsel the committee on various factors relating to the development of our executive compensation program, including the selection criteria for our comparator groups.
Aon Hewitt is engaged directly by, and is fully accountable to, the committee. The committee has determined that Aon Hewitt does not have any conflicts of interest that would prevent it from being objective. In reaching this determination, the committee considered:. The committee considered these results in determining to operate the fiscal executive compensation program Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol.
2 to the fiscal program. We intend to continue to solicit shareholder feedback. Table of Contents on our executive compensation program by holding an advisory say-on-pay vote on an annual basis and will continue to consider the results of this process in evaluating the program and making future compensation decisions for the named executive officers. We intend to seek an advisory vote on the frequency of our say-on-pay vote at the Annual Meeting to be held in and, taking into account the feedback from that vote, we will re-evaluate the frequency of the say-on-pay vote at that time.
The comparator groups are summarized below. We use different comparator groups to evaluate pay levels and performance because the committee believes that it is appropriate to use companies that are generally similar in size for pay comparisons.
For performance comparisons, however, we compete for executive talent and capital with companies that are much larger and smaller than the companies used solely for pay comparisons.
The committee therefore believes it should use a broader comparator group to evaluate performance. Inthe committee reviewed competitive pay level information for the named executive officers. The competitive data was then size-adjusted, or regressed, to account for our revenues compared to Surrender To - Various - I ❤ SGZR Vol. 2 comparators. In making compensation decisions related to fiscalthe committee referenced this competitive pay study.
The committee uses this information to generally inform its compensation decisions but does not formulaically benchmark based on this data. The committee generally sets target levels of total direct compensation for the named executive officers at or near the 50th percentile of total compensation paid to similarly situated executives at the comparison companies. Variations from the 50th percentile level may occur, as dictated by the experience level of the individual and market factors.
Further, the 50th percentile compensation target may be exceeded for a year in which performance significantly exceeds goals. Comparator Group Used to Evaluate Performance.
The committee believes that this is an appropriate comparator group for measuring performance because, like our company, these companies are influenced, either up or down, by external conditions such as changes in commodity prices. In evaluating performance related to fiscalthe committee continued to use this Performance Comparator Group in order to maintain consistency in setting goals and evaluating performance.
For fiscalthe compensation for the named executive officers included the following components:. Fiscal Compensation Components. Annual Incentive. Griffin and Bullock. Table of Contents Compensation. Retirement and. Health and. Gatẽra-Gãta - Honzi - One Benefits. Perquisites and.
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